Diverses commandes linux

28 Oct 2016 par jj, Pas de commentaire »

Voici un petit memo personnel de quelques commandes en vrac à ajouter à votre boite à outils : 

 

-DEBIAN like : Suppression d’un packet mal installé qui nécessite une réinstallation : 

sudo dpkg --force-remove-reinstreq --remove $NomDuPacket

- : Compter le nombre de fichiers contenu dans un répertoire : 

ls -1A |wc -l

-LINUX : Rechercher occurence toto dans tous les fichiers du répertoire courant : 

find . -name ‘*’ -exec grep -Hsl ‘toto’ {} ;

-LINUX : activer un script dans init.d au boot du système : 

update-rc.d $NomDuScrupt defaults

-LINUX : désactiver le démarage d’un script init.d au boot du système : 

update-rc.d -f $NomDuScript remove

 

-La CheatOgraphie : 

###Bash Commands
uname -a 
#Show system and kernel
head -n1 /etc/issue 
#Show distribution
mount 
#Show mounted filesystems
date 
#Show system date
uptime 
#Show uptime
whoami 
#Show your username
man command 
#Show manual for command
###Bash Shortcuts
CTRL-c 
#Stop current command
CTRL-z 
#Sleep program
CTRL-a 
#Go to start of line
CTRL-e 
#Go to end of line
CTRL-u 
#Cut from start of line
CTRL-k 
#Cut to end of line
CTRL-r 
#Search history
!! 
#Repeat last command
!abc 
#Run last command starting with abc
!abc:p 
#Print last command starting with abc
!$ 
#Last argument of previous command
ALT-. 
#Last argument of previous command
!* 
#All arguments of previous command
^abc^123 
#Run previous command, replacing abc with 123
###Bash Variables
env 
#Show environment variables
echo $NAME 
#Output value of $NAME variable
export NAME=value 
#Set $NAME to value
$PATH 
#Executable search path
$HOME 
#Home directory
$ 
#Current 
###IO Redirection
cmd < file
#Input of cmd from file
cmd1 <(cmd2)
#Output of cmd2 as file input tocmd1
cmd > file
#Standard output (stdout) of cmd to file
cmd > /dev/null
#Discard stdout of cmd
cmd >> file
#Append stdout to file
cmd 2> file
#Error output (stderr) of cmd to file
cmd 1>&2
#stdout to same place as stderr
cmd 2>&1
#stderr to same place as stdout
cmd &> file
#Every output of cmd to file
###Pipes
cmd1 | cmd2
#stdout of cmd1 to cmd2
cmd1 |& cmd2
#stderr of cmd1 to cmd2
###Command Lists
cmd1 ; cmd2
#Run cmd1 then cmd2
cmd1 && cmd2
#Run cmd2 if cmd1 is successful
cmd1 || cmd2
#Run cmd2 if cmd1 is not successful
cmd &
#Run cmd in a subshell
###Directory Operations
pwd 
#Show current directory
mkdir dir 
#Make directory dir
cd dir 
#Change directory to dir
cd .. 
#Go up a directory
ls 
#List files
###ls Options
-a Show all (including hidden)
-R Recursive list
-r Reverse order
-t Sort by last modified
-S Sort by file size
-l Long listing format
-1 One file per line
-m Comma-separated output
-Q Quoted output
###Search Files
grep pattern 
#files Search for pattern in files
grep -i 
#Case insensitive search
grep -r 
#Recursive search
grep -v 
#Inverted search
grep - 
#Show matched part of
file only
find /dir/ -name name* 
#Find files starting with name in dir
find /dir/ -user name 
#Find files owned by name in dir
find /dir/ -mmin num 
#Find files modifed less than num minutes ago in dir
whereis command 
#Find binary / source / manual for command
locate file 
#Find file (quick search of system index)
###File Operations
touch file1
#Create file1
cat file1 file2
#Concatenate files and output
less file1
#View and paginate file1
file file1
#Get type of file1
cp file1 file2
#Copy file1 to file2
mv file1 file2
#Move file1 to file2
rm file1
#Delete file1
head file1
#Show first 10 lines of file1
tail file1
#Show last 10 lines offile1
tail -F file1
#Output last lines offile1 as it changes
###Watch a Command
watch -n 5 'ntpq -p'
#Issue the 'ntpq -p' command every 5 seconds and display output
###Process Management
ps 
#Show snapshot of processes
top 
#Show real time processes
kill pid 
#Kill process with id pid
pkill name 
#Kill process with name name
killall name 
#Kill all processes with names
beginning name
###Nano Shortcuts
##Files
Ctrl-R 
#Read file
Ctrl-O 
#Save file
Ctrl- 
#Close file
##Cut and Paste
ALT-A 
#Start marking text
CTRL-K 
#Cut marked text or line
CTRL-U 
#Paste text
##Navigate File
ALT-/ 
#End of file
CTRL-A 
#Beginning of line
CTRL-E 
#End of line
CTRL-C 
#Show line number
CTRL-_ 
#Go to line number
##Search File
CTRL-W 
#Find
ALT-W 
#Find next
CTRL- 
#Search and replace
###Screen Shortcuts
screen
#Start a screen session.
screen -r
#Resume a screen session.
screen -list
#Show your current screen sessions.

###Screen Shortcuts (cont)
CTRL-A
#Activate commands for screen.
CTRL-A c
#Create a new instance of terminal.
CTRL-A n
#Go to the next instance of terminal.
CTRL-A p
#Go to the previous instance of terminal.
CTRL-A "
#Show current instances of terminals.
CTRL-A A
#Rename the current instance.
###File Permissions
chmod 775 file
#Change mode of file to 775
chmod -R 600 folder
#Recursively chmod folder to 600
chown user:group file
#Change file owner to user and group to group

###File Permission Numbers
#First digit is owner permission, second is group and third is everyone.
#Calculate permission digits by adding numbers below.
#4 read (r)
#2 write (w)
#1 execute (x)

 

Si vous en avez d’autres que vous considérez utiles, n’hésitez pas à me les envoyer en commentaire.

 

 

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